Botany is the branch of biology that deals with the study of plants, including their structure, physiology, reproduction, and biochemical processes.

Botany is a very vast and comprehensive science and is divided into various major branches such as morphology, histology, physiology, plant anatomy, genetics, cytology, taxonomy, ecology, paleobotany, plant geography, etc.

The scope of botany and its consequent importance is vast and immense. For the very existence of not only human beings but also all animals, plants are necessary.

The study of botany forms a necessary informational background for students preparing for careers in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, bacteriology, pharmacology, soil conservation, and other related fields.

Cell structure of Cyanobacteria

Cell Structure of Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria are the most primitive types of organisms (plants) with simple prokaryotic cellular structures. With the help of an electron microscope, Pankratz and Bowen (1963) studied the structure of cyanobacterial cells. The detailed cell structure of cyanobacteria is as follows: Cell…

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Reproduction in Algae

Reproduction in Algae

Reproduction in algae is the production of young ones (offspring) of the same kind as themselves. Generally, all three types of reproduction are observed in algae, such as: Vegetative Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Vegetative Reproduction in Algae The method…

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Habitat of algae

Algae in Diversified Habitats

Algae are chlorophyll-bearing autotrophic members of thallophytes comprising a large heterogeneous assemblage of relatively simple plants. Algae may be aquatic, semi-aquatic, or terrestrial in their habitat. In the sea, they make up the major part of the vegetation. On pools…

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Thallus organisation in algae

Thallus organisation in Algae

Algae are plants of simple structures. There exist a wide variety of thalli in algae, particularly in the vegetative plant body. The different forms show a definite range. The range of thallus is from the simplest, which consists of non-motile…

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Chloroplasts: Definition, Structure, Functions

Chloroplasts are double membraned rod-like oval or spherical cell organelles in the cytoplasm of most plant cells that help in photosynthesis. It is a green plastid containing chlorophylls. Animal cells normally lack plastids(all forms of plastids including chloroplasts). Several unicellular…

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Mitochondria: Definition, Structure, Functions

Mitochondria are the rod-shaped, ovoid, or thread-like, scattered minute particles in all aerobic cells of higher animals and plants. These are also present in algae, protozoa, and fungi. Bacterial cells, however, do not have mitochondria. They are associated with cellular…

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Ribosomes: Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Ribosomes are membraneless, small, sub-spherical ribonucleoprotein particles. They are often found connected to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. Ribosomes also occur freely in the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic matrix), chloroplasts, and mitochondria. In 1943, A. Claude has first isolated…

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Lysosomes: Definition, Structure, Functions

Lysosomes are tiny vascular membrane-bound vesicles involved in intracellular digestion. They contain a variety of hydrolytic enzymes that remain active under acidic conditions. Greek words “Lysis = digestive or break down, and soma = body“. During electron microscopic studies in…

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