Permanent Tisues

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionThey are the tissues that have lost the potentiality of cell division after gaining the maturity. They are o...

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Light reaction

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionLight reaction is the first step in photosynthesis occurring in grana of chloroplast and needs the utilizati...

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Compositate (Asteraceae)

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionAsteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite, or sunflower family) is an ex...

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Inflorescence

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionThe arrangement and distribution of flower in the axis of plant is called inflorescence. The supporting stal...

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Poaceae/Graminae

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionGraminae is the largest family among monocotyledon plants. It compromises about 6.68 genera and 9500 species...

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Plant Physiology

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionWater Relation: Water is the most important factor for all the vital functions of plant. Plant cannot surviv...

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Reproduction in Angiosper...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionThe process of production of new individuals similar in form to the parent organisms is called reproduction....

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Tissue Culture

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Tissue Culture and TypesTissue culture is a technique of growing cells, tissues and organs in an artificially prepared n...

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Plant Growth Harmons

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Types of phytohormonesThere are five types of phytohormones. 1. Auxin 2. Gibberellins 3. Cytokinins 4. Abscissic acid 5....

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Plant Anatomy

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionThe science of the structure of the organized plant body learned by dissection is called Plant Anatomy (anat...

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Photosynthesis

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionPhotosynthesis is the synthesis with the help of light. It is the process by which green plants use sunlight...

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Mutation Polyploidy

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

PolyploidyPolyploidy describes the case of a cell or an individual possessing entire extra sets of chromosomes. The type...

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Monocot and Dicot

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Internal Structure of Dicot StemEpidermis: it is the outermost layer of the stem. It is made up of single layer of compa...

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Mendel's law of Inheritan...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionMendel was born on 22nd July, an Austrian monk. In 1851, he went to Vienna to study Natural Selection and Ma...

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Heridity and Variation

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

HeredityThe offspring’s of all the organisms (plants and animals) resemble their parents in several aspects. This is onl...

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Genetic Engineering

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionGenetic engineering is the science which deals with the selective alteration of the genetic make-up of organ...

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Genetic code and Gene poo...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Genetic codeThe sequence of bases in a gene and the amino acids in a proten. This relationship of nucleotide bases of a...

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Fermentation

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionFermentation is a process of incomplete oxidation of sugar, especially glucose, into alcohol and co2 .It is...

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Crossing over

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionCrossing over may be defined as an exchange of genetic material between non- sister chromatids of homologous...

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Breeding Technique

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionMethod of plant breeding: The plant breeding involves the following methods for crop improvement. Introducti...

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Biotechnology

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionIt is the utilization of living organisms like bacteria, yeasts, algae, fungi and cells of higher plants and...

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Eco-system

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionAn ecosystem consists of the biological community that occurs in some locale, and the physical and chemical...

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Cilia and Flagella

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionCilia and Flagella are microscopic hair like motil structure present extracellularly but orignate intracellu...

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryoti...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

ProkaryoticProkaryotic cells are the characteristic of bacteria and blue green algae. The size ranges mostly from 1-10um...

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Multicellular

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionBody is made up of numerous cells. The cell are smaller in size according to their function and location. Di...

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Unicellular

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionBody consists of single cell. The cells are large in size due to presence of numberr of cell organelles. Div...

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Bacteria

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionBacteria are ten to 100 times larger than viruses. They are typically 1 to 3 microns in length and take the...

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Virus

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionWith the exception of newly discovered prions, viruses are the smallest agents of infectious disease. Most v...

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Greenhouse Effect

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionOver the last two centuries, the composition of the Earth's atmosphere has been altered substantially by hum...

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Acid Rain

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionGenerally, acid rain means the rain of water containing excessive amount of acids. Oxides of Slulphur, Carbo...

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Carbon Cycle

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionThe carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, g...

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Ecological Pyramid

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionThe concept is often associated with descriptions of food chains and food webs (Food Chains and Food Webs in...

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Bryophyta

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionThe Plant body is a gametophyte. They grow in areas which arc in between the aquatic and terrestrial habitat...

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Pteridophyta

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionMembers of this group are most primitive living vascular plants. The main plant body is a sporophyte. It is...

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Reproduction by Spore

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

OverviewSpore, a reproductive cell capable of developing into a new individual without fusion with another reproductive...

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Pinus Lifecycle

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionThe Pinus tree represents the sporophytic generation. The stem displays the excurrent habitat. The main stem...

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Funaria Lifecycle

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionPlant is small about 1-3 cm long, stem is erect and branched. It is differentiated into rhizoids, axis, and...

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Marchantia Lifecycle

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionThe plant body is dorsiventrally flattened, dichotomously branched. Thallus consists of distinct mid rib. On...

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Spirogyra

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionThe plant body of spirogyra is a gametophytic thallus which is elongated cylindrical, unbranced silky thread...

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Mucor Lifecycle

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionMucor is saprophytic fungus and grows on dead organic material. It belongs to class Phycomycets subclass zyg...

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Yeast Lifecycle

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionIt is unicellular and microscopic. The cells are oval or round and range 8μ to 15μ in size. Each cell is cov...

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Fungi

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

Fungi are eukaryotic organisms. They are non-vascular organisms. They reproduce by means of spores. Depending on the spe...

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RNA

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

RNA: RiboNucleic Acid. Used to transfer the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes to make proteins. RNA is used...

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DNA

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

DeoxyriboNucleic Acid : Long-term storage of genetic information transmission of genetic information to make other cells...

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Algae

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

Algae are aquatic and also found in moist rocks and soil surface. The plant body is thallus does not differenciate into...

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Meiosis Cell Division

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

Overview:Meiosis is the type of indirect cell division in which one cell divide into four cells in two sucessive divisio...

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Mitosis Cell Division

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

IntroductionMitosis is a form of eukaryotic cell division that produces two daughter cells with the same genetic compone...

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Plant Cell

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

Cell WallA fundamental difference between plant and animal cells is that the plant cell is surrounded by a rigid cell wa...

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Steward Experiment

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

Steward and his co-workers in 1950 took a small piece from the phloem tissue of carrot root and put them in liquid mediu...

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Cell Theory

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 13

M.J Scheiden in 1838 purposed that all plant made up of cell with cell wall in 1839, T.Schwann purposed that all animal...

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