Quality of water for Aqua...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

OverviewRain water free from contaminants or tap water is ideal for aquarium tanks. A tap water of domestic supply is li...

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Earthworm - Vermiculture

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

OverviewThe growth of industries, urban cities and the ever increasing human population have led to an increased accumul...

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Development of heart in F...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

OverviewThe heart is the first organ to start functioning because it has to circulate blood which brings nourishment fro...

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Quantitive inheritance

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

OverviewCharles Darwin while working on his theory of Natural selection, recognised two principal types of variations, n...

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Basic principles of nomen...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Basic Principles1. Providing stability in the naming and classification of organisms is emphasized. Any taxon must have...

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Taxonomic systems

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

OverviewThe initiation for eolving taxonomic systems was provided by Aristotle (384-322 BC). He emphasized that animals...

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Animal Behaviour

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

DefinationThe scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural condit...

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Phylum Pisces

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

General FeaturesPisces is a Class in the Subphylum Vertebrata of the Phylum Chordata, so they have all of the characteri...

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Phylum: Reptilia

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

ReptilesThe upper part of the skull of reptiles is modified giving the reptiles a far more efficient and powerful jaw ac...

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Amphibia

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionAmphibians are cold blooded animals that belong to the class Amphibia which comprises of three orders. Amphi...

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Vertebrates and Invertebr...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Defination Animals can be classified into two main groups: vertebrates and invertebrates. The main difference between ve...

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Phylum Protozoa

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

General ConceptsProtozoa Protozoa are one-celled animals found worldwide in most habitats. Most species are free living,...

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Antibiotics and Vaccines

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

AntibioticAntibiotics is the chemical substances produced as the metabolic products of some microorganisms and acts as t...

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Test tube baby (IVF)

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionIn vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body: in vitro,...

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HIV and AIDs

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the h...

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Endocrinology

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Endocrine GlandsThe study of endocrine glands is called endocrinology. Thomas Addison is known as ‘The Father of Endocri...

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Cancer

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Introductionmalignant cells, or tumor cells. It is also called neoplasm.Types of CancerThere are many of cancers, as fol...

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Amniocentesis

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionAmniocentesis is the medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal inf...

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Animal Cell

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionAll animal cells are multicellular. They are eukaryotic cells. Animal cells are surrounded by plasma membran...

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Abiogenesis (life from no...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionThis theory explains that life originates from non-living body. For E.g. toads and frogs evolved from mud, e...

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BIOGENESIS (life from lif...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionAccording to this view, life can origin only from its pre-existing form, not from non-living components. Tha...

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Oparin`s and Halden`s The...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionGradual transformation (transmutation) of inorganic compounds to organic compounds and organic compounds to...

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Evidences of Organic Evol...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

EvidencesThe following are the evidences of organic evolutions:- Evidences from morphology/comparative anatomy & vestigi...

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Neo-Darwinism “OR” Modern...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionNeo-Darwinism is the modified form of Darwinism. This theory is modification of Darwin`s theory along with c...

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Darwinism

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Facts of DarwinismThis is the most popular theory of evolution given by a British biologist Charles Robert Darwin in 185...

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Germplasm Theory (Neo-Lam...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionThis theory is given by German biologists August Weishmann. According to this theory, “in living organisms,...

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Lamarckism

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Facts of LamarckismThe first theory of organic evolution was postulated by a French biologists Jean Baptiste Lamarck in...

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Characters of living bein...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Life Process1. Cellularity: Body of all living organisms is made up of cell. Cell s the basic structural and functional...

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Scope of Biology

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Field of health and medicineAll the health workers such as doctors, nurse, health assistants, dentists etc come from bio...

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Relation of Biology

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Relation with ChemistryBody of all living organisms s made up of organic and inorganic compounds. All the metabolic acti...

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Branches of Biology

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Branches1. Botany: It deals with the study of plants. 2. Zoology: It deals with the study of animals. 3. Microbiology: I...

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Phylum : Echinodermata

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

CharacteristicsGreek words Ekina-spines & derma-skin 1. They have body covered with spiny skin. 2. Habitat: They are exc...

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Phylum: Mollusca

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

CharacteristicsMolluse= soft They have soft, unsegmented and muscular body. They are aquatic (usually marine, some are f...

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Phylum: Arthopoda

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Characteristics1. They have jointed legs or appendages. 2. Habitat: This is the largest phylum and found in all types of...

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Phylum : Annelida

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

CharacteristicsFrom Latin words; annulus = ring + eidos = form 1. Habit and Habitat: They are mostly aquatic, found in s...

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Phylum : Nematoda

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Characteristics1. Body form: They have elongated, cylindrical and unsegmented body like threads, so often called thread...

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Phylum: Platyhelminthes

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

General CharacteristicMade up of two Greek words – Platys =flat &helmins =worms 1. Body form: They have dorsoventrally f...

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Phylum: Coelenterate (Cni...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

CharacteristicsMade up of two Greek words Koilos – hollow, Enteron – intestine 1. Habit and Habitat: They are all aquati...

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Phylum: Porifera

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Important CharactersPorifera has been derived from 2 Greek words. Poros – pure and ferre – to bear Their body possesses...

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Animals

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionAnimals Ovipary – is the development of embryo inside the egg but outside the body of female. The phenomenon...

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Types of alimentary canal

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionComplete: In this, mouth and anus or clocal aperture are present. E.g. from Nematodes to Chordates Incomplet...

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Types of true Coelem

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionSchizocoel: Coelom formed by splitting of mesodermal bands. Annelids, arthopods, mollucs and higher chorclat...

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Types of Coelomates

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

Types1. Pseudocoelom (false coelom): formed by splitting of mesoderm. Coelom is filled with muscles and tissues. E.g. Ne...

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Cellularity

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 14

IntroductionIt is a basic structural and functions unit of life. Based on the no. of cell, organisms have been categoriz...

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