DNA Ligation

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewLigase requires precisely positioned 5'PO4 and 3'OH groups to catalyse phosphodiester bond formation. The best a...

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Chemical Differences betw...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

Chemical differences between DNA & RNA► Both RNA and DNA are composed of repeated units. The repeating units of RNA are...

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Ribonucleic acid

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewRNA is similar to DNA but differs in several respects. 1. It is shorter 2. It is single stranded (with few excep...

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Deoxyribonucleic acid

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewDeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the material of which genes are made. This had not been widely accepted until 195...

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Mitochondrial inheritance

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewMitochondria are cellular organelles involved in energy production and conversion. They have a small amount of t...

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Double Crossovers

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewIf all three markers are in the same linkage group, that is, on the same chromosome, then we can observe an ABC/...

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Cytogenetics

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewCytogenetics is the study of chromosomes and the related disease states caused by abnormal chromosome number and...

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Human Chromosome Abnormal...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewChromosome abnormalities include inversion, insertion, duplication, and deletion. These are types of mutations....

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Pleiotropy

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewPleiotropy is the effect of a single gene on more than one characteristic. Examples : 1. The "frizzle-trait" in...

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Polygenic Inheritance

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewPolygenic inheritance is a pattern responsible for many features that seem simple on the surface. Many traits su...

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Normal Chromosomes

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewEach species has a normal diploid number of chromosomes. Cytogenetically normal humans, for example, have 46 chr...

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Exceptions to Mendelian r...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewThere are many reasons why the ratios of offspring phenotypic classes may depart (or seem to depart) from a norm...

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Denaturation and Renatura...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

DenaturationDenaturation is the loss of a protein's or DNA's three dimensional structure. The "normal" three dimensional...

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Helix

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

IntroductionA helical structure consists of repeating units that lie on the wall of a cylinder such that the structure i...

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Protein

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewAmino acids contain a carboxylic acid (-COOH) group and an amino (-NH2) group. The amino groups are usually atta...

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Carbohydrate

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewMonosaccharides polymerize to form polysaccharides. Glucose is a typical monosaccharide. It has two important ty...

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Meiosis and Genetic Recom...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewWhile genes determine most of our physical characteristics, the exact combination of genes we inherit, and thus...

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Regulation of the Cell Cy...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewDifferent types of cells divide at different rates. Skin cells divide frequently, whereas liver cells divide onl...

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Chemical components of ce...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewThe chemical components of cell membranes The components cell membrane includes: • Lipid - cholesterol, phosphol...

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Ribosomes(Moleculat Biolo...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewAfter post-transcriptional processing, mRNA leaves the cell nucleus and bonds with a ribosome, a structure compo...

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The Structure of tRNA

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewTransfer RNA molecules vary in length between 60 and 95 nucleotides, with the majority measuring about 75 nucleo...

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DNA Translation

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewDNA translation is the process that converts an mRNA sequence into a string of amino acids that form a protein....

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Mutations

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewMutations are errors in codons caused by changes in nucleotide bases. Some mutations may not have much effect. F...

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Genetic Code and Rules

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

CodonsScientists main problem lay in the fact that while there were only 4 nitrogen bases (nucleotides), there were 20 a...

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Chemistry of the Primary...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

Splicing Step OneIn the first step of primary RNA transcript splicing, the 2' –OH on the branch point A attacks the phos...

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Overview of Post-Transcri...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewProkaryotic DNA transcription produces messenger RNA, which is necessary for transfer from the cell nucleus to t...

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The 5' Cap and the Poly A...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

5' End CappingPost-transcriptional processing of the 5' end of the RNA product of DNA transcription comes in the form of...

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Post-Transcriptional RNA...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewDNA transcription occurs in a cell's nucleus. The RNA that is synthesized in this process is then transferred to...

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Eukaryotic DNA Transcript...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

Eukaryotic RNA PolymerasesUnlike prokaryotic RNA polymerase that initiates the transcription of all different types of R...

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Prokaryotic DNA Transcrip...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

ElongationThe elongation phase of transcription refers to the process through which nucleotides are added to the growing...

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DNA Replication and DNA T...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

Similarities between DNA Replication and DNA TranscriptionThe processes that synthesize DNA and RNA are similar in that...

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DNA Transcription

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewDNA transcription is the process in which DNA is copied into RNA; as a result the process can also be called RNA...

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Types of DNA Damage

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewAfter DNA has been completely replicated, the daughter strand is often not a perfect copy of the parent strand i...

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Errors in DNA Replication

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

ErrorsThe low overall rate of mutation during DNA replication (1 base pair change in one billion base pairs per replicat...

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Building Blocks of DNA Re...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

DeoxyribonucleotidesThe building blocks added on to a growing daughter strand are individual nucleotides. Remember, in D...

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The Leading and Lagging S...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

The Leading StrandSince DNA replication moves along the parent strand in the 5' to 3' direction, replication can occur v...

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DNA Replication

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

DNA Replication is Semi-ConservativeDNA replication of one helix of DNA results in two identical helices. If the origina...

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Bases, Sugars, and Phosph...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

The Bases of DNAThe four nitrogen bases found in DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Each of these bases ar...

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The Importance of the Hyd...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewHydrogen bonding is essential to the three-dimensional structure of DNA. These bonds do not, however, contribute...

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Helical Structure of DNA

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewThe Helical Structure of DNA shows a single strand of DNA. However, as stated earlier, DNA exists as a double-he...

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Nucleotides and Nucleic A...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewBoth DNA and RNA are known as nucleic acids. They have been given this name for the simple reason that they are...

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Nucleic Acid Terms

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

Anti-parallelRefers to the orientations of the two single strands that compose a double-stranded DNA helix. Strands are...

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Building Blocks of Nuclei...

  • posted Date:2017 Sep, 16

OverviewThis guide will focus on the "central dogma" of molecular biology. We will review the processes responsible for...

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