It is the utilization of living organisms like bacteria, yeasts, algae, fungi and cells of higher plants and animals in the manufacture of useful products. Biotechnology is a new discipline of science in which latest technology has been applied to biological organisms for the welfare of society.
Branches of Biotechnology
Tissue Culture: It is a technique of growing cells, tissues and organs in an artificially prepared nutrient medium under aseptic conditions. It is applied in production of disease free plants, improvement of plant varieties, etc. Protoplast Culture: Protoplast is a cell without cell wall. A complete plant can be obtained from a single protoplast culture. It is useful in obtaining germ free plants, introduction of foreign genes and fusion of two incompatible plants. Genetic Engineering: It is the science dealing with the selective alternation of genetic make-up of organisms by the introduction of foreign genes. It is applied in commercial production of insulin and other hormones and vaccines. Hybridoma Technology: A hybrid cell that is produced by the fusion of a tumor cell with a normal antibody producing ß cell is called hybridoma. The technique is called hybridoma technology. Monoclonal antibodies are used to identify a particular antigen within a mixture and identifying blood groups.
Application of Biotechnology
Biotechnology has brought total revolution, advancement and sophistication in various fields. Biotechnology is applied in several areas for the human welfare. Some of the important applications of biotechnology are Biotechnology in Agriculture, Biotechnology in Medicine, Biotechnology in Fermentation, Biotechnology and environment, Biotechnology in Energy Production.