Plant is small about 1-3 cm long, stem is erect and branched. It is differentiated into rhizoids, axis, and leaves. The rhizoids are multicellular and branched. The axis is aerial, erect, and branched. The leaves are simple, small, and spirally arranged. The upper leaves are large and lower leaves are crowded.
The reproduction takes place by following method- By primary protonema The spores germinate to give rise small filament called primary protonems, which contains small buds from where new plant is produced. By secondary protonema: The filament can grow from stem, leaves, or rhizoids called secondary Protonems. They bear small buds and which are capable to give rise new plant. By gemmae: The small multicellular structures develop on leaves and axis, which develop into new plant. By bulbil: The gammae like structures developed on the rhizoids are called bulbils which grow into new plant.
Funaria is monoecious female organs develop or separate branch of same plant autocious. Male branch - the branch with male sex organs id called male branch. The male sex organs - Antheridia develop in group at the apex of shoot . They are mixed with hair like structure paraphysis. Antheridia and paraphysis are surrounded by leaves called perichaetial leaves. Each antneridiuim is stalked, club-shaped, surrounded by jacket; two apex cells are large/thick called operculum. With the help of water, the operculum ruptures and androcytes come out and change into antherozoids (spermatozoids). Female branch – The branch with female sex organs.The female sex organ – Archegonia are developed at the apex of shoot. The archegonia are mixed with hair like sterile structures called paraphysis. Both surrounded by perichaetial leaves. Each archegonium is flask shaped, stalked, and contains broad Venter and long neck. The Venter contains an egg, Venter canal cell, double layered wall. Neck contains neck canal cells.
In pressure of water antherozoid reach to archegonia tip. Neck canal/Venter canal cells degenerate. antherozoids enter through neck and only one free with egg to form zygote.