Book : Human Biology
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Posted by: CHELSEA
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Writer CHELSEA

Blood Pressure

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Introduction

The pressure of the blood in the circulatory system, often measured for diagnosis since it is closely related to the force and rate of the heartbeat and the diameter and elasticity of the arterial walls. "heart failure is common in patients with high blood pressure"

Overview

Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. Unless indicated otherwise, blood pressure refers to systemic arterial blood pressure, i.e., the pressure in the large arteries delivering blood to body parts other than the lungs, such as the brachial artery (in the arm). The pressure of the blood in other vessels is lower than the arterial pressure. Blood pressure values are universally stated in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). The systolic pressure is defined as the peak pressure in the arteries during the cardiac cycle; the diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure (at the resting phase of the cardiac cycle). The mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure are other important quantities. Typical values for a resting, healthy adult are approximately 120 mm Hg systolic and 80 mm Hg diastolic (written as 120/80 mm Hg), with large individual variations. These measures of blood pressure are not static, but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another or throughout the day (in a circadian rhythm); they also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, or disease.

Systolic Pressure

Systolic Pressure is the highest when the blood is being pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta during ventricular systole. The average high during systole is 120 mm Hg.

Diastolic Pressure

Diastolic blood pressure lowers steadily lowers to a low of 80 mm Hg during ventricular diastole.


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