Fermentation is a process of incomplete oxidation of sugar, especially glucose, into alcohol and co2 .It is generally an anaerobic process. It is mostly extracellular. The Production of alcohol on the industrial scale is the fermentation technology.
Batch process: In batch process nutrient medium and fermenting organism like yeast are allowed to remain in the bioreactor till the maximum fermentation product is produced. The medium with organism and the product is removed after each charge. Then the bioreactor is cleaned and a fresh batch is stored. Continous process: In this process product is drawn off at regular intervals and fresh medium is introduced in to bioreactor.
Application of fermentation in industries
1.Organic acids: Citric acid is produced from fermenting molasses or purified glucose syrup. Lactic acid is produced using thermo tolerant bacteria. Acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates.
2.Amino acids: Out of 20 naturally occurring amino acids, twelve are produced by industrial fermentation or enzyme conversion.
3.Vitamins: Vitamins are be synthesized by chemical processes or biological means. 4.Enzymes: The bulks of enzymes used commercially are obtained from microbial sources, and from fermentation processes.