Book : Human Biology
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Posted by: CHELSEA
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Writer CHELSEA

Brain

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Introduction

The brain is found in the cranial cavity. Within it are found the higher nerve centers responsible for coordinating the sensory and motor systems of the body (forebrain). The brain stem houses the lower nerve centers (consisting of midbrain, pons, and medulla).

Medulla

The medulla is the control center for respiratory, cardiovascular and digestive functions.

Pons

The pons houses the control centers for respiration and inhibitory functions. Here it will interact with the cerebellum.

Cerebrum

The cerebrum, or top portion of the brain, is divided by a deep crevice, called the longitudinal sulcus. The longitudinal sulcus separates the cerebrum in to the right and left hemispheres. In the hemispheres you will find the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and the limbic system. The two hemispheres are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The right hemisphere is responsible for the left side of the body while the opposite is true of the left hemisphere. Each of the two hemispheres are divided into four separated lobes: the frontal in control of specialized motor control, learning,planning and speech; parietal in control of somatic sensory functions; occipital in control of vision; and temporal lobes which consists of hearing centers and some speech. Located deep to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum is the insula.

Cerebellum

The cerebellum is the part of the brain that is located posterior to the medulla oblongata and pons. It coordinates skeletal muscles to produce smooth, graceful motions. The cerebellum receives information from our eyes, ears, muscles, and joints about what position our body is currently in. It also receives output from the cerebral cortex about where these parts should be. After processing this information, the cerebellum sends motor impulses from the brainstem to the skeletal muscles. The main function of the cerebellum is coordination. The cerebellum is also responsible for balance and posture. It also assists us when we are learning a new motor skill, such as playing a sport or musical instrument.


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