This is a simultaneous oxidation-reduction process whereby cellular metabolism occurs, such as the oxidation of sugar in the human body, through a series of very complex electron transfer processes. The chemical way to look at redox processes is that the substance being oxidized transfers electrons to the substance being reduced. Thus, in the reaction, the substance being oxidized (aka. the reducing agent) loses electrons, while the substance being reduced (aka. the oxidizing agent) gains electrons. Remember: LEO (Losing Electrons is Oxidation) the lion says GER (Gaining Electrons is Reduction). The term redox state is often used to describe the balance of NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH in a biological system such as a cell or organ. The redox state is reflected in the balance of several sets of metabolites (e.g., lactate and pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) whose interconversion is dependent on these ratios. An abnormal redox state can develop in a variety of deleterious situations, such as hypoxia, shock, and sepsis.