Book : Botany
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Posted by: CHELSEA
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Writer CHELSEA

Genetic Engineering

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Introduction

Genetic engineering is the science which deals with the selective alteration of the genetic make-up of organisms by the introduction of foreign genes. The formation of new and artificial combinations of DNA originating in quite different organism is referred to as recombinant DNA and the technique is called recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering. This kind of gene multiplication is also called gene cloning since this technique involves introduction and cloning of desired genes in to the vector.

Application in field of agriculture

1. Creation of resistant varieties of plants: Transfer of specific genes from one species genes from one species to another species play great significance in exploiting diseases, insect and pest resistance mechanism more efficiently. 

2. Biofertilization: Molecular nitrogen is converted in to Biologically usable form by nitrogen fixing micro-organism e.g. Rhizobium. 

3.Creation of transgenic animals: animals that have foreign genes inserted into their germ lines are called transgenic. They can pass the gene on to their offspring’s, and it can be inherited as a mendalian trait. Possible dangers of genetic engineering: There is a risk of creation of drug resistance germs and out-break diseases against which there is known prevention. Accidental escape of laboratory strains may create havoc on earth which causes contaminate a large population. Introduction of genes like that of viral cancer into bacteria through plasmids may involve the risk of introducing these harmful genes into man when these bacteria infect human. Hybrid genomes may create some serious ecological problems, the nature of which is still unknown.

Possible dangers of genetic engineering

There is a risk of creation of drug resistance germs and out-break diseases against which there is known prevention. Accidental escape of laboratory strains may create havoc on earth which causes contaminate a large population. Introduction of genes like that of viral cancer into bacteria through plasmids may involve the risk of introducing these harmful genes into man when these bacteria infect human. Hybrid genomes may create some serious ecological problems, the nature of which is still unknown.


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