Method of plant breeding: The plant breeding involves the following methods for crop improvement. Introduction of a new variety of a plant into a locality which has played an important role in the improvement of agriculture. Usually introduced varieties become well adopted to a new environment and may produced a higher yield in comparision to the local varieties and be introduced into a locality either from country or different region. Selection: It is the oldest method of plant breeding. It is a basic of all crop improvement programmes. The selection of plants can be selected by the following ways: Natural selection, Artificial selection, Mass selection, Pure line selection, Clonal selection.
The process of obtaining new varieties of crops by crossing two genetically different parents is called hybridization. Types of hybridization: 1.Intra-specific hybridization: It is useful for the improvement of self- pollinated crops. With this method, several new varieties of crops can be evolved. 2.Inter-specific hybridization: In this method, the cross is made between the two different species of same genera for develop a new species. 3.Intergeneric hybridization: In this method the crop is made between two different genera of same family. For e.g. a new species of wheat Triticum aestivum is produced by crossing between a species of wheat Triticum monococcum with wild grass Aegilops species.
Advantages of hybridization
Hybridization is more useful in transforming the characters from wild related genera to cultivated plants. Varieties of plants best suited to particular climate can be obtained. It also helps in evolution. We can produce the good quality of plants which may yield better fruits and seed. It helps in producing a large variety of high yielding crops.