Mendel's law of Inheritance
Mendel was born on 22nd July, an Austrian monk. In 1851, he went to Vienna to study Natural Selection and Mathematics, and returned to the monastery in 1853. In 1854, he taught physics and natural science for fourteen years. He concluded hybridization experiments on fruits, trees, flowers, vegetables, and more on garden peas. On the basis, he began his scientific investigation on inheritance in 1856.His experiments opened a new chapter in biology and published his conclusion ‘Inheritance of characters’ in 1866 in the ‘ Annual Proceedings of the Natural History Society’. But his work was recognized only in 1900, when three scientists of Holland, Austria and Germany independently drew a conclusion like Mendel. Since Mendel’s Laws were widely accepted , this led to the establishment of genetics as a science.
Karl Correns, a German genetist formulated the two laws of inheritance but the laws were not formulated by Mendel. The two laws of inheritance that were formulated by Correns where later update and revised and were classified into three laws namely:
1st law of inheritance: 1st law of inheritance or law of dominance: It states that ‘ When two pure plants with contrasting characters are crossed, only one form of the character appears in F1 generation, the other remains unexpressed. The character which appears itself in F1 generation is called dominant , the alternative factor that fails to show itself in F1 generation is called recessive.
2nd law of inheritance: 2nd law of inheritance or law of segregation or law of purity of gametes: It states that, The characteristics of an organism are determined by internal factor which occurs in pairs, only one of a pair of such factor can be represented in a single gamete that separates at the time of gametogenesis.
3rd law of inheritance: 3rd law of inheritance or law of Independent Assortment: It states that when two pairs of independent alleles are brought together in the hybrid (F1), they, at the time of gamete formation, segregate or assort independent at random and freely. This shows that genes are independent influence each other.