Book : Human Biology
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Posted by: CHELSEA
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Writer CHELSEA

The Heart

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Introduction

The heart is a hollow, muscular organ about the size of a fist. It is responsible for pumping blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. The heart is composed of cardiac muscle, an involuntary muscle tissue that is found only within this organ. The term "cardiac" (as in cardiology) means "related to the heart” and comes from the Greek word kardia, for "heart." It has a four chambered, double pump and is located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs. The cardiac muscle is self-exciting, meaning it has its own conduction system. This is in contrast with skeletal muscle, which requires either conscious or reflex nervous stimuli. The heart's rhythmic contractions occur spontaneously, although the frequency or heart rate can be changed by nervous or hormonal influence such as exercise or the perception of danger.

Myocardium

The myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. The myocardium is composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells with an ability not possessed by muscle tissue elsewhere in the body. Cardiac muscle, like other muscles, can contract, but it can also conduct electricity, like nerves. The blood to the myocardium is supplied by the coronary arteries. If these arteries are occluded by atherosclerosis and/or thrombosis, this can lead to angina pectoris or myocardial infarction due to ischemia (lack of oxygen). Failure of the heart to contract properly (for various reasons) is termed heart failure, generally leading to fluid retention, edema, pulmonary edema, renal insufficiency, hepatomegaly, a shortened life expectancy and decreased quality of life

Pericardium

The pericardium is the thick, membranous sac that surrounds the heart. It protects and lubricates the heart. There are two layers to the pericardium: the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium. The serous pericardium is divided into two layers; in between these two layers there is a space called the pericardial cavity.

Epicardium

The layer next to the heart is the visceral layer, also known as the Epicardium. This is the inner most layer and consists of connective tissue.

Heart Chambers

The heart has four chambers, two atrium and two ventricles. The atriums are smaller with thin walls, while the ventricles are larger and much stronger. Atrium There are two atria on either side of the heart. On the right side is the atrium that holds blood that needs oxygen. The left atrium holds that blood that has been oxygenated and is ready to be sent to the body. The right atrium receives de-oxygenated blood from the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the left and right pulmonary veins. Ventricles The ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium and pumps it out of the heart. There are two ventricles: the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation for the lungs, and the left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation for the rest of the body. Ventricles have thicker walls than the atria, and thus can create the higher blood pressure. Comparing the left and right ventricle, the left ventricle have thicker walls because it needs to pump blood to the whole body. This leads to the common misconception that the heart lies on the left side of the body.

Septum

The interventricular septum (ventricular septum, or during development septum inferious) is the stout wall separating the lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart from one another. The ventricular septum is directed backward and to the right, and is curved toward the right ventricle. The greater portion of it is thick and muscular and constitutes the muscular ventricular septum. Its upper and posterior part, which separates the aortic vestibule from the lower part of the right atrium and upper part of the right ventricle, is thin and fibrous, and is termed the membranous ventricular septum.

Valves

The two atrioventricular (AV) valves are a one-way valve that ensures blood flows from the atria to the ventricles, and not the other way. The two semilunar (SL) valves are present in the arteries leaving the heart; they prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles. The sound heard in a heart beat is the heart valves shutting. The right AV valve is also called the tricuspid valve because it has three flaps. It is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The tricuspid valve allows blood to flow from the right atrium into the right ventricle when the heart is relaxed during diastole. When the heart begins to contract, the heart enters a phase called systole, and the atrium pushes blood into the ventricle. Then, the ventricle begins to contract and blood pressure inside the heart rises. When the ventricular pressure exceeds the pressure in the atrium, the tricuspid valve snaps shut. The left AV valve is also called the bicuspid valve because it has two flaps. It is also known as the mitral valve due to the resemblance to a bishop's mitre (a type of hat).


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