Formation of Urine
Urine is formed in three steps: Filtration, Reabsorption, and Secretion
Blood enters the afferent arteriole and flows into the glomerulus. Blood in the glomerulus has both filterable blood components and non-filterable blood components. Filterable blood components move toward the inside of the glomerulus while non-filterable blood components bypass the filtration process by exiting through the efferent arteriole. Filterable Blood components now take on plasma like form called glomerular filtrate. A few of the filterable blood components are water, nitrogenous waste, nutrients and salts (ions). Nonfilterable blood components include formed elements such as blood cells and platelets along with plasma proteins. The glomerular filtrate is not the same consistency as urine, as much of it is reabsorbed into the blood as the filtrate passes through the tubules of the nephron.
Within the peritubular capillary network, molecules and ions are reabsorbed back into the blood. Sodium Chloride reabsorbed into the system increases the osmolarity of blood in comparison to the glomerular filtrate. This reabsorption process allows water (H2O) to pass from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulatory system.
Some substances are removed from blood through the peritubular capillary network into the distal convoluted tubule or collecting duct. These substances are Hydrogen ions, creatinine, and drugs. Urine is a collection of substances that have not been reabsorbed during glomerular filtration or tubular secretion