Book : Human Biology
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Posted by: CHELSEA
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Writer CHELSEA

Blood Diseases

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Introduction

People may be affected by many different types of blood conditions and blood cancers. Common blood disorders include anemia, bleeding disorders such as hemophilia, blood clots, and blood cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), also called consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological process in the body where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body. This depletes the body of its platelets and coagulation factors, and there is a paradoxically increased risk of hemorrhage. It occurs in critically ill patients, especially those with Gram-negative sepsis (particularly meningococcal sepsis) and acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Hemophilia

Hemophilia is a disease where there is low or no blood protein, causing an inability to produce blood clots. There are two types of Hemophilia: Type A, which is a deficiency in factor VIII and Type B, (Christmas disease) a deficiency on factor IX. Because people with hemophilia do not have the ability to make blood clots, even a little cut may kill them, or the smallest bump or jar to the body could cause severe bruising that doesn't get better for months. Hemophilia is passed down from mothers to their sons. Hemophilia is sometimes known as the "Royal Disease". This is because Queen Victoria, Queen of England (1837-1901), was a carrier of hemophilia. The hemophilia disease was passed down to her son Leopold who ended up dying at age 31. Queen Victoria also had two daughters who were carriers. These daughters passed hemophilia into the Spanish, German, and Russian royal families.

Factor V Leiden

The opposite of Hemophilia, Factor V Leiden is the name given to a variant of human factor V that causes a hypercoagulability disorder. In this disorder the Leiden variant of factor V, cannot be inactivated by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden is the most common hereditary hypercoagulability disorder amongst Eurasians. It is named after the city Leiden (The Netherlands), where it was first identified in 1994 by Prof R. Bertina et al. Those that have it are at a slightly higher risk of developing blood clotts than those without. Those that test positive for factor V should avoid (oral contreseptives, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure.)

Anemia

Anemia (AmE) or anaemia (BrE), from the Greek ( Ἀ ναιμία) meaning "without blood", refers to a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. This results in a reduced ability of blood to transfer oxygen to the tissues, causing hypoxia. Snce all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. Hemoglobin (the oxygen- carrying protein in the red blood cells) has to be present to ensure adequate oxygenation of all body tissues and organs. The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis). In menstruating women, dietary iron deficiency is a common cause of deficient red blood cell production.

Sickle cell

Sickle-cell disease is a general term for a group of genetic disorders caused by sickle hemoglobin (Hgb S or Hb S). In many forms of the disease, the red blood cells change shape upon deoxygenation because of polymerization of the abnormal sickle hemoglobin. This process damages the red blood cell membrane, and can cause the cells to become stuck in blood vessels. This deprives the downstream tissues of oxygen and causes ischemia and infarction. The disease is chronic and lifelong. Individuals are most often well, but their Image of RBC's with lives are punctuated by periodic painful attacks. In addition to periodic pain, Sickle Cell mutations. there may be damage of internal organs, and/or stroke. Lifespan is often shortened with sufferers living to an average of 40 years.


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