Tissue Culture and Types
Tissue culture is a technique of growing cells, tissues and organs in an artificially prepared nutrient medium under aseptic conditions. Types of plant tissue culture: Shoot culture: In shoot culture axillary buds are used as explants for plant tissue culture to formation of multiple buds. Protoplast culture: The isolated protoplast is the cell from which the cell wall has been removed. It is isolated from roots, leaves, fruits, tubers, pollen mother cells and cell of callus grown in vitro. Embryo culture: In this culture embryos are excised immature seeds under clean and sterile conditions. Anther or microspore culture: In this culture more often, anthers rather than microspore are used as explants for plant tissue culture. Meristem culture: In this culture apical meristem is used as explants, which is always dividing.
Methods of Tissue Culture
In this culture, the most common culture plant tissue is callus which is wound tissue composed of undifferentiated, highly vacuolated and unorganized mass of cell. This can be done by following operations: Isolation of plant materials: The tissue or plant part removed from the plant body for culture is called explants and the plant from which it is removed is called is known as stock plant. In this method, only young and healthy parts of plant are used to establish callus on the nutrient media. Stem apex and seeds are most used to raise callus. Sterilization: Destruction of microorganisms are using very various sterilizing compounds is called sterilization. Sterilization of working area, culture vessels, instruments, media, plant materials, culture room and working hand is necessary in plant tissue culture. The specified Nutrient: It requires all those substances which plant tissue normally obtains from their xylem and phloem. A well defined culture medium contains inorganic nutrient, organic nutrient, agar and growth hormones.